In the following, represents a vector, whereas represents a matrix. The elements of
and
are denoted and , respectively, where indexes the rows, and indexes the columns.
Furthermore, denotes a null vector, and denotes an identity matrix.
Equations (2.175) and (2.176) can be written in the compact form [38]

(2.177) 
where
It is helpful to define
Equations (2.170)–(2.174), (2.181), and (2.182) can be combined to give

(2.183) 
where
It is also helpful to define

(2.186) 
It follows from Equations (2.130), (2.134)–(2.137), (2.165), (2.166), and (2.171)–(2.174) that

(2.187) 
However, Equations (2.170) and (2.182) yield

(2.188) 
Finally, the previous two equations can be combined to give

(2.189) 
where use has been made of Equations (2.130) and (2.183).