Resistive Layer Physics
By analogy with Equation (3.102), we can write

(3.108) 
Here, is the reconnection time (i.e., the typical timescale on which magnetic reconnection takes place in the
resistive layer surrounding the rational surface), whereas is the angular rotation frequency of the tearing mode in the laboratory frame. The
rotation frequency is nonzero because the reconnected flux in the resistive layer is convected by the local plasma
flow [4].