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An adiabatic invariant is an approximation to a more fundamental type of
invariant known as a Poincaré invariant. A Poincaré invariant
takes the form

(102) 
where all points on the closed curve in phasespace move
according to the equations of motion.
In order to demonstrate that is a constant of the motion, we
introduce a periodic variable parameterizing the points on the curve .
The coordinates of a general point on are thus written
and . The rate of change of is then

(103) 
We integrate the first term by parts, and then used Hamilton's
equations of motion to simplify the result. We obtain

(104) 
where
is the Hamiltonian for the motion.
The integrand is now seen to be the total derivative of along .
Since the Hamiltonian is a singlevalued function, it follows that

(105) 
Thus, is indeed a constant of the motion.
Next: Adiabatic Invariants
Up: Charged Particle Motion
Previous: Invariance of Magnetic Moment
Richard Fitzpatrick
20110331