(7.31) |

The mean energy is written

(7.32) |

where the sum is taken over all states of the system, irrespective of their energy. Note that

(7.33) |

where

(7.34) |

It follows that

The quantity , which is defined as the sum of the Boltzmann factor over all states, irrespective of their energy, is called the

Let us evaluate the variance of the energy. We know that

(See Chapter 2.) Now, according to the canonical distribution,

(7.37) |

However,

(7.38) |

Hence,

(7.39) |

We can also write

(7.40) |

where use has been made of Equation (7.35). It follows from Equation (7.36) that

(7.41) |

Thus, the variance of the energy can be worked out from the partition function almost as easily as the mean energy. Because, by definition, a variance can never be negative, it follows that , or, equivalently, . Hence, the mean energy of a system governed by the canonical distribution always increases with increasing temperature.

Suppose that the system is characterized by a single external parameter (such as its volume). The generalization to the case where there are several external parameters is straightforward. Consider a quasi-static change of the external parameter from to . In this process, the energy of the system in state changes by

(7.42) |

The macroscopic work done by the system due to this parameter change is

(7.43) |

In other words, the work done is minus the average change in internal energy of the system, where the average is calculated using the canonical distribution. We can write

which gives

We also have the following general expression for the work done by the system

(7.46) |

where

(7.47) |

is the mean generalized force conjugate to . (See Chapter 4.) It follows that

(7.48) |

Suppose that the external parameter is the volume, so . It follows that

(7.49) |

and

where is the pressure. Because the partition function is a function of and (the energies depend on ), it follows that the previous equation relates the mean pressure, , to (via ) and . In other words, the previous expression is the equation of state. Hence, we can work out the pressure, and even the equation of state, using the partition function.