as well as

Here, , , and , , are the Cartesian coordinates of the Moon (relative to the Earth) and the Sun (relative to the Earth-Moon barycenter), respectively, in a reference frame that rotates at angular velocity (i.e., the Moon's mean orbital angular velocity) about an axis perpendicular to the ecliptic plane. Note that if the lunar orbit were a circle, centered on the Earth, and lying in the ecliptic plane, then the coordinates , , and would all be independent of time. In fact, the small eccentricity of the lunar orbit, , combined with its slight inclination to the ecliptic plane, , as well as the various solar perturbations, generate small-amplitude oscillations in , , and (Yoder 1995).

Equations (11.41)-(11.43) and (11.47)-(11.49) yield

It is also easily demonstrated that

The Cartesian components of the lunar equation of motion, (11.33), are

(11.54) | ||||||

(11.55) | ||||||

and | (11.56) |

Making use of Equations (11.44)-(11.46), the previous expressions transform to give

Here, , , , et cetera.

It is convenient, at this stage, to adopt the following normalization scheme:

with , , and . In normalized form, Equation (11.50)-(11.53) become

whereas Equations (11.57)-(11.59) yield

Here,

where

(11.75) |

and

Furthermore, , , et cetera. Finally, and .

Equations (11.62)-(11.65) and (11.69)-(11.71) yield

Likewise, (11.62)-(11.65) and (11.72)-(11.74) give

(11.80) | ||||||

(11.81) | ||||||

and | (11.82) |

Here, we have we have neglected terms that are third order, or greater, in the small parameters , , and .

Finally, let us write

Here, is a constant, and , , , . Expanding Equations (11.66)-(11.68) and (11.77)-(11.82), and neglecting terms that are third order, or greater, in the small parameters , , , , , , and , we obtain

where

(11.89) | ||||||

(11.90) | ||||||

(11.91) | ||||||

(11.92) | ||||||

and | (11.93) |

After Equations (11.86)-(11.93) have been solved for , , , and , the geocentric Cartesian coordinates, ( , , ), of the Moon in the non-rotating reference frame are obtained from Equations (11.44)-(11.46), (11.60)-(11.61), and (11.83)-(11.85). However, it is more convenient to write , , and , where is the radial distance between the Earth and Moon, and and are termed the Moon's geocentric (i.e., centered on the Earth) ecliptic longitude and ecliptic latitude, respectively. Moreover, it is easily seen that, neglecting terms that are third order, or greater, in the small parameters , , , and ,