- Prove the following useful theorems regarding partial derivatives:

- The specific internal energy of a (not necessarily ideal) gas is defined by

and - The specific enthalpy of a gas is defined by

and - The
*specific Helmholtz free energy*of a gas is defined by

and - The
*specific Gibbs free energy*of a gas is defined by

and

- The specific internal energy of a (not necessarily ideal) gas is defined by
- Demonstrate that the specific heat at constant volume of a (not necessarily ideal) gas can be written
- The quantities

are known as the*coefficient of thermal expansion*, the*isothermal compressibility*, and the*adiabatic compressibility*, respectively. Demonstrate that for a (not necessarily ideal) gas,(14.151)

Hence, deduce that

- Show that for an ideal gas

where is the Mach number, the flow speed, and , , , and , are the temperature, pressure, density, and sound speed, respectively, at the stagnation point. - Consider the flow of an isentropic ideal gas down a straight nozzle with a slowly-varying cross-sectional area,
, where
measures distance along the nozzle. Let
,
,
, and
be the flow speed, density, sonic speed, and
Mach number, respectively. Demonstrate that
- As indicated in Figure 14.4, a
*shock tube*is a tube of uniform cross section that is divided by a diaphragm into two chambers that contain different gases at different pressures. Let measure distance along the tube, and let the diaphragm be located at . Suppose that the chamber to the left of the diaphragm (which lies at ) is filled with stationary gas of pressure, density, temperature, and ratio of specific heats, , , , and , respectively. Likewise, suppose that the chamber to the right of the diaphragm (which lies at ) is filled with stationary gas of pressure, density, temperature, and ratio of specific heats, , , , and , respectively. It is assumed that . At , the diaphragm is ruptured. As indicated in the figure, a shock wave subsequently travels to the left with speed , and an expansion wave to the right with speed . The so-called*contact surface*marks the boundary between the two different gases that were originally on either side of the diaphragm. Neglecting diffusion, the gases do not mix, but are permanently separated by the contact surface. On either side of the contact surface, which moves to the left with speed , the temperatures and densities can be different, but the pressures and flow velocities must be the same. We can divide the gas in the tube into four regions. Regions 1 lies to the left of the shock wave. Region 2 lies between the shock wave and the contact surface. Region 3 lies between the contact surface and the expansion wave. Region 4 lies to the right of the expansion wave. Thus, we expect the flow velocity, pressure, density, temperature, and ratio of heats to be , , , , and , respectively, in Region 1; , , , , and , respectively in Region 2; , , , , and , respectively in Region 3; and , , , , and , respectively, in Region 1. Note that and are negative. Demonstrate that

and - Show that the maximum shock strength and shock speed attainable in a (uniform) shock tube, in the limit
, are
- Show that Equations (14.38) and (14.39) can be written in the form

where is the sound speed. By adding and subtracting the previous equations, obtain

These equations indicate that the quantities and are constant on curves that have the slope and , respectively. These curves are called*characteristics*, and and are known as*Riemann invariants*. In situations in which all the characteristics originate from regions where the gas is at rest, we expect to be constant throughout the gas. Deduce that [cf., Equation (14.50)] - Consider a one-dimensional sound wave propagating through an ideal gas whose unperturbed sound speed is
.
At time
, the velocity perturbation,
, due to the wave, has the form
, where
and
are both positive. Demonstrate that shocks form after a time
- An ideal gas is initially at rest in a uniform tube, and occupies the region to the right of a tight-fitting piston whose
position is
for
. Here,
. Show that a shock first forms at
and
, where

Here, is the stagnation sound speed, and the ratio of specific heats.